TABLE 5 National Family Planning Program Expenditures in LDC's Expenditures, U.S. Cents per Capita per Fiscal Year Country 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 Next Plan Period India 2.2 2.5 4.1a 7.7 8.5 14.6C Pakistan 6.6 10.6 14.4 23.4d Rep. Korea 4.2 5.1 9.0 9.4 19. 8b - China (Taiwan) 1.2 4.0 3.8 3.5 5.1 - Malaysia 0 0 0.4 2.9 6.2 - - = not available aReflects sudden change in exchange rate from Rs 4.75 to 7.54 per US $; rupee expenditures almost doubled. ^Includes large capital investment. cProposed by Government of India, Draft Fourth Five-Year Plan, 1969-1974, New Delhi, April 1969, p. 312. ^Proposed by Government of Pakistan, Planning Commission, Fourth Five-Year Plan 1970-75. p. 242. Sources: Malaysia 1966-68 from annual reports of National Family Planning Board; others 1964-68 are preliminary data obtained from each country by Warren Robinson, Pennsylvania State University. family planning expenditures are considered separately whether or not they were included as health expenditures in a particular country. Family Planning Expenditures Definition of terms is critical in all international comparative work but particularly so in a new field such as natality control. Natality control, as used in this paper, includes all organized activities intended to achieve a specified natality level or a specified growth rate for a population. Family planning programs, as used here, are organized activities whose objective is to enable individual couples to act effectively to plan and assure the number and timing of children they want (25). The principal distinction is between societal (governmental) control and individual family control, and the dividing line is very wide and very gray. Most of the national programs in this field are called family planning programs. Where the specified natality goal for a country can be achieved by the sum of individual family planning actions, natality control and family planning programs are for all practical purposes identical. This is the general case today. Most programs operate under policies which specify voluntary family planning as the major means of attaining a natality level. None includes coercion, but all aim at making it easier for families to obtain and useces (e.g., the degree to which medical care costs and various environmental health services are included).